top of page


What is an essential oil?

Essential oils are highly concentrated plant extracts that are derived from various parts of plants, including leaves, flowers, stems, roots,bark, and seeds. These oils capture the natural aroma and therapeutic properties of the plant from which they are extracted.
The extraction process typically involves methods such as steam distillation, cold pressing, or solvent extraction.
During extraction, the aromatic compounds, along with other bioactive constituents of the plant, are distilled or pressed into a concentrated liquid form. Essential oils are composed of various chemical constituents, including
terpenes, alcohols, esters, phenols, and ketones, among others. These compounds give each essential oil its unique aroma, flavour, and therapeutic properties. Essential oils have been used for thousands of years in various
cultures for their medicinal, aromatic, and culinary purposes. They are valued in aromatherapy for their potential health benefits, which can include promoting relaxation, alleviating stress, supporting respiratory health, and enhancing mood, among others.

What are Top, Middle and Base notes in candle making?

When building fragrances in candles, the fragrances are categorized into three main groups. These are based on the evaporation rate of their aromatic compounds.
These categories are known as top notes, middle notes (also called heart notes), and base notes. Understanding these notes is crucial for the candle maker to create balanced and long-lasting scent compositions. Here's an overview of each note category:
Perfumers carefully blend the aromatic ingredients from each note category to create harmonious and well-balanced fragrances.
Understanding the evaporation rates and characteristics of top, middle, and base notes is essential for designing perfumes that unfold beautifully over time, revealing a multi-dimensional olfactory experience.

Top Notes

Top notes are the initial impressions of a fragrance that you perceive immediately upon application or sniffing a perfume. They are light, fresh, and volatile, meaning they evaporate relatively quickly (usually within 15 minutes to 2 hours). Examples: Citrus fruits (e.g., bergamot, lemon, orange), herbal notes (e.g., lavender, mint), light florals (e.g., neroli, petitgrain), fruity notes (e.g., grapefruit, mandarin), and aromatic spices (e.g., ginger, cardamom).
Role: Top notes create the first impression of a fragrance, providing a burst of freshness and vibrancy. They are often uplifting and invigorating, setting the stage for the subsequent notes to unfold.

Middle Notes (Heart Notes)

Middle notes emerge after the top notes dissipate, typically within 15 minutes to 1 hour after application. They form the heart or core of a fragrance, exhibiting more complexity and character than top notes.
Examples: Floral bouquets (e.g., rose, jasmine, ylang-ylang), spicy notes (e.g., cinnamon, nutmeg), herbal aromatics (e.g., basil, rosemary), fruity florals (e.g., jasmine with fruity nuances), and some woody notes (e.g., cedarwood, pine).
Role: Middle notes contribute to the body and character of a fragrance. They provide depth, balance, and complexity, transitioning the scent from its initial freshness to its more enduring base notes.

Base Notes

Base notes are the foundation of a fragrance, emerging as the top and middle notes evaporate. They are rich, deep, and long-lasting, persisting for several hours to even days on the skin.
Examples: Woodsy aromas (e.g., sandalwood, patchouli, vetiver), balsamic notes (e.g., vanilla, benzoin), animalic scents (e.g., musk, ambergris), earthy tones (e.g., oakmoss, tobacco), and some resinous notes (e.g., frankincense, myrrh).
Role: Base notes provide the stability, longevity, and lingering presence of a fragrance. They often have a warm, comforting, and sensuous character, anchoring the entire perfume composition.


Great news! We are excited to announce that our book "A-Z of Essential Oils" will be launching this summer. Stay tuned and subscribe to our newsletter to be the first to know when it's ready.

Keep up to date with the latest Bryluen Botanicals news..

Thanks for subscribing!

Applying Essential Oil
A to Z of essential oils
bottom of page